Connectors & Plugs

charging cable

Connector type in the EU

Charging levelCharging stationCable
Level 1
≤ 2,3 kW
Emergency charger that doesn’t require installation
Type 2 Cable female
τύπου 2
Not requiredType 2 male
τύπου 2
Level 2 with integrated cable
Up to 22 kW
– Private chargers
Type 2 Cable female
τύπου 2
Not requiredType 2 male
τύπου 2
Level 2
Έως 22 kW
– Public & outdoor chargers
Type 2 Socket female
τύπου 2
Type 2
male female
Type 2 male
τύπου 2
Level 3 (EU Standard)
Up to 360 kW
CCS 2 Cable
Not requiredCCS 2
Level 3 (ορισμένα παλαιότερα ευρωπαϊκά οχήματα)
Up to 400 kW
– The standard is used in other countries
CHAdeMO Cable
Not requiredCHAdeMO

1. The Charging Station:

In 2014, the EU has passed a legislation requiring all member states to enact a law for the standardization of EV connectors by the 18th of November 2017. This requirement applies to all public charging stations installed or upgraded after the set date, and requires that the following ports are available:

  • Type 2 (also known as Mennekes), when providing Level 2 (AC) charging
  • CCS 2 (Combo 2), when providing Level 3 (DC) charging

Along the side of the mandated port types mentioned above, you may also come across the following ports in Europe:

  • Type 3 (mainly in France)
  • CHAdeMO at Fast (rapid) DC Charging Stations

Depending on your use case and the installation location, a Level 2 charging station with either a socket or cable may better fit your needs:


  • Charge any vehicle
  • Flexible positioning of charger
  • No risk of cable damage

Integrated cable

  • Easy of use
  • No need for a separate cable

2. The Cable

Most EVs sold in the EU come equipped with a Level 1 (Mode 2) charging cable. This cable is plugs into a standard Schuko wall socket and can serve as a practical backup charger. However, due to the slow speed (read more about the charging speeds), it is far from ideal for everyday use.

At the charging stations side:

  • Public Level 2 charging stations usually feature only a socket / outlet, leaving users responsible to furnish their own cable. For all recent charging stations, the necessary cable is Type 2.
  • DC charging stations (Level 3) have a tethered (hardwired) cable that plugs directly into the EV. In the majority of cases, these plugs will be CCS 2 / Combo 2, a larger plug that attaches to the Type 2 port with additional contacts below (for DC CCS compatible EVs). Some public DC stations may also offer a CHAdeMO cable compatible with some DC EVs. This is a separate connector used on some EVs, notably the Nissan Leaf.
  • Home charging station (Level 2) may either have a tethered (hardwired) cable or provide a socket / outlet. For Charing Stations sold in the EU, the connector is Type 2. A notable exception is France, where by law all charging stations need to have a physical cover, concealing the electrical contacts. Consequently, OEMs comply with this requirement by selling charging stations with a shuttered socket rather than a tethered (hardwired) cable which. Previously France, used a Type 3 connector, which is now being phased-out.

The common connectors found featured on the EVs sold in Europe:

Type 2

Compatible with basically all EVs available for sale in the EU.

Max. output: 22kW (DC fast chargers can support up to 43kW AC charging)


Compatable with most EVs sold in the EU that support rapid (DC) charging.

Max. output: 50kW


Compatible with some of the EVs sold in the EU that support rapid charging.

Max. output: 50kW

3. The Electric Vehicle (EV):

EU vehicles come equipped with a Type 2 port(s) for AC charging with additional CCS 2 contacts for DC charging, when supported. A notable exception is Tesla Model S and Model X, which offer DC charging but requires an adopter to convert the custom Type 2 port to either: CCS or CHAdeMO. Older versions of the above mentioned models are restricted to CHAdeMO only, unless retrofitted by Tesla. The latest Tesla Model 3, destined for the EU, has both, a Type 2 and a CCS port. Another important exception is the Nissan Leaf which uses a CHAdeMO connector for Level 3 (DC) charging.

In North America

In North America the major standards for the charging stations and Level 1 cables are:

  • NEMA 14-50 outlet, also known as the RV outlet.
  • Type 1, also known as J plug. The plug on the charging stations with a tethered cable, and the standard for the majority of EVs sold in North America.
  • CHAdeMO. The standard commonly used for Level 3 (DC) charging. Tethered to the charging station.
  • CCS 1. Also commonly used for Level 3 (DC) charging. As in the EU, the cable is tethered to the DC Station and the plug is a combination of the Type 1 with additional DC contacts.

The electric vehicles are generally equipped with a Type 1 (also known as J plug) connector for AC charging with either additional contact for a CCS connection or a CHAdeMO port, for DC charging (if supported by the vehicle). Tesla vehicles sold in North America are equipped with a Tesla proprietary port used for both; AC and DC charging.

Other markets and connector variations

Japan, and Asia in general, widely use the Type 1 standard for Level 2 charging and CHAdeMO for Level 3 (DC charging). China uses their own standard – GB/T.

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